- Acquire Module
- Software that can expand the functions of the Adobe Photoshop
program. Typically created by a scanner manufacturer, once
installed it allows the user to perform scans while running
Photoshop and to immediately have the scan available for image
- Anti Aliased
- Anti aliasing an edge of an element or a mask is to give it a
slightly soft edge that makes it appear smoother. It is similar to
feathering by one or two pixels.
- Another term for a line-art scan file or scanner setting.
Refers to the pattern (map) of bits that are either black or
- Black Limit
- A color separation setting for the maximum allowable
percentage of black ink in a CMYK image. This setting is made
before an RGB image is converted to a CMYK image. The proper black
limit setting is determined by the press and paper planned for the
- Black Point Adjustment
- An adjustment made that will determine the amount of shadow
detail in an image. It is considered proper to set the black point
so that the darkest part of an image will only just have zero
- A part of an image in Adobe Photoshop. An RGB image has three
channels, CMYK has four and line-art has one. The user can perform
edits on individuals. Additional channels can be created to
contain masks, type, patterns, or other images. These additional
channels can be combined with the main image or used for special
- Clipping Path
- A function of the PostScript language that allows a shape to
mask part of an image. A clipping path shape acts much like a
cookie cutter. Clipping paths are most frequently used in Adobe
Photoshop to outline or silhouette an image.
- Cloning Pixels
- A function in image editing software that allows scratch
removal or the removal of more significant portions of an image
like telephone poles or a blemish on a models cheek. The function
works by picking up pixels from another part of the image and
painting them over the unwanted element. Pixel cloning can even be
used cloning pixels from one image into another.
- Color Cast
- An image is said to have a color cast if its colors are not
true. A color cast will usually be described by stating the
particular color predominant in the image: "The grass appears to
have a red color cast."
- Color Correction
- The act of correcting for and eliminating an unwanted color
cast. Color correction is performed on an entire image (called
global color correction) or on just one part (called local color
- Color Separation
- The act of converting an RGB color image into CMYK color
image. The act of color separation is a technical function during
which critical press specific settings such as GCR, black ink
limit and total ink limit are applied to the image. If an image is
already CMYK it would be described as being already color
separated and would not need to be separated again.
- The act of discarding unwanted detail around the edge of a
picture. Cropping in this way permanently discards the detail from
the file and reduces file size.
- DCS File Format
- A color separated photo made up of 5 files. One each
representing each of the process printing colors CMYK and one
master file that is used for layout positioning.
- Digital Densitometer
- Image editing software has the ability to measure the values
in pixels and read them out in RGB or CMYK. These values are
accurate when compared with the actual values stored within the
files and will remain unchanging regardless of which computer
display the file is shown on.
- EPS File Format
- Encapsulated PostScript file. A file format commonly used for
photographic and drawn graphics. An EPS file is created and later
placed onto a page layout in a page assembly program.
- EPS Rasterizer
- A feature of Adobe Photoshop that allows a PostScript
illustration saved in the EPS format to be converted into pixels
for special effect editing.
- Grey component replacement. A color separation setting used on
color photographs where cyan, magenta and yellow inks are swapped
out of an image (in a balance that would yield a grey value) and
black ink is swapped in instead. The advantages are a reduction in
overall ink usage, a more consistent press run, and some increase
in image detail.
- A term for a black & white photographic image or a scanner
setting. Refers to the range of 256 grey tones that make up the
- A measurement of color as can be related by pointing towards a
certain color on the color wheel. Hue indicates the relative
redness, blueness, greenness, yellowness, etc. of a color.
- Image Assembly
- An act where parts of two or more images are composited
together to create a new hybrid image. A typical example of image
assembly would be to position a picture of sunny blue sky into the
background of a picture of the Seattle skyline.
- Magic Wand Tool
- A tool in Photoshop used to quickly select a part of a
picture. If clicked on a the fender of a red car, the magic wand
will select the entire fender and maybe the hood and door. A
setting called "tolerance" allows the user to define the relative
selectivity of the magic wand. A tight tolerance and the magic
wand will only select the highlights of the car fender. A loose
tolerance and the magic wand will select the green trees behind
the car. The selections made by this tool always select areas that
are connected and not divided.
- A function within image editing software that allows the user
to restrict their image edits to only a part of the image. A mask
can have a hard or soft edge allowing the user to achieve a
variety of obvious or subtle effects.
- A term used to describe the occurrence of pixels within in an
image that contain random colors. Also refers to a filter in
Photoshop that can sometimes be used to give a smoother, more
natural appearance to graduated screens. This filter is also used
for special effects.
- A characteristic of painting and other tools within image
editing software. By adjusting opacity to a percentage of less
than 100%, the user can paint a color onto an image and allow some
of the image beneath to show through. (Paint with transparent
paint versus opaque paint.) This same characteristic is available
while performing image assembly steps and allows one image to be
transparently floated in front of or behind another.
- The smallest building block within a scanned line-art or
photographic image. A pixel is the small square picture element
that is filled with a color, or black or white. Pixels come in
various sizes and their size is expressed in terms of resolution.
Resolution is measured in pixels per inch (PPI.)
- Printable Color
- A term used to describe a color that falls within the gamut of
a particular output device. A printable color will output as
expected. Compared to a color that falls out of gamut which will
print as an unexpectedly different shade. See also Gamut
- RAM Needs
- When deciding how much RAM you need in your computer,
determine the average size of picture (expressed in MB) you will
regularly handle. It is desirable to have 3 times that amount of
RAM installed in your computer.
- Re-sample an Image
- A function available in image editing that allows the user to
change the resolution of the image. Resampling an image is
possible to any degree but there is a high quality penalty to pay
if the image is resampled above 150% or below 50%. The quality
loss will come in terms of decreased image sharpness. See also
Re-sizing an Image
- Re-sizing an Image
- A function available in image editing software. Re-sizing an
image is possible to any percent but there is a high quality
penalty to pay if the image is scaled above 150% or below 50%. The
quality loss will come in terms of decreased image sharpness.
- Resolution of an Image
- Expressed as PPI (pixels per inch.) The resolution of an image
is a major factor that determines the attainable output quality.
Proper resolution depends on the image type: Line-art should have
a resolution of 600 PPI or above and photographs should have
resolution twice the anticipated halftone screen frequency.
- A function found within image editing software that allows all
or part of a pixel image to be rotated by any number of degrees.
Rotation in 90° increments is fast and carries no quality
penalty but this is not the case for other angles. This is why it
is important to carefully orient artwork on a scanner so that
rotation will not be necessary.
- Selective Color Correction Adjustment
- An adjustment available to allow specific colors within an
image to be adjusted in regard to their color make-up: It is
possible to take red out of green grass without affecting the red
of the apples.
- Silhouetted Image
- A photographic image that has had its background erased so
that the image can appear to float on the page layout. This is
usually accomplished by selecting the edge pixels and coloring
them white. It can alternately be accomplished by selecting the
subject in the image and creating a "clipping path" from the
selection. This clipping path will hide any image outside of this
path and allow the subject in the image to float on a page layout.
- TIFF File Format
- Tagged Image File Format. One of the most common graphic file
formats for line-art and photographic images. A TIFF file always
consists of pixels; it can store information at any resolution the
user requests and can include color or black & white data.
- Tone Compression
- A term used in scanning and image editing that refers to
compressing the broad range of tones and colors in an image down
to the narrower range available on a printing press.
- Tone Curves
- A term for an adjustment available in image editing software.
Beginning as a 45° angle line running up to the right, this
line is adjusted into a curve shape by the user to effect color or
tone correction. The lower left end of the curve typically
represents the dark portions of a picture and an upward bend will
typically lighten the shadows. Similar capabilities exist by
working with the middle or highlight parts of the curve. In this
way it is possible to alter only certain tone ranges of an image
without making un-wanted changes in other parts of the image.
- Total Ink Coverage
- Sometimes abbreviated as TIC. A term used in color separation
to refer to the maximum allowable percentages of process inks
(CMYK) in a photo on a press run. Expressed as a percentage number
that is the total of the four colors; it is typically between 240%
and 350% depending on the combination of press and paper types.
- Transfer Adjustment
- A command found in some image editing software to help
calibrate the image files to correctly output on an imagesetter.
This adjustment is typically left alone, and instead, the
imagesetter itself is calibrated. See also Linearization.
- Under Color Removal. A color separation setting used on color
photographs where cyan, magenta and yellow inks are removed from
dark, neutral areas and black ink is swapped in instead. The
advantages are a reduction in overall ink usage. See also GCR.
- Unsharp Masking
- An important function that allows the user to add apparent
clarity via electronic means. Unsharp masking is considered the
most sophisticated sharpening method because it sharpens without
the undesirable graininess that appears with other sharpening
- Virtual Memory
- A computer term for a performance enhancing feature of some
software. Virtual memory is a process where hard disk storage
space is borrowed and caused to act as if it were additional RAM.
The system will then be able to perform more complex functions
just as if it had the additional RAM memory actually installed.
See also RAM.
- White Point Adjustment
- An adjustment made that will determine the amount of highlight
detail in an image. It is considered proper to set the white point
so that the lightest part of an image will only just have zero